Thursday, May 31, 2012

RE: [NNSD] Mass meeting and rally advocating Newa Rajya

May 31, 2012
Bihari K Shrestha

Dear Bihari jee
Thanks a lot for your solidarity.
Besides the question of greater and wider integration, as in Europe, there is another question of Newa identity that I view differently from Newars demanding Newa Rajya. For me Newa identity is like an orchid which thrives on a tree, taken away from which it stands the risk of withering away. There are people of Newa descent in India whose Newa identity is non-existent. At best they are identified as Indians of Nepali origin.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: [] On Behalf Of Bihari Shrestha
Sent: Sunday, May 20, 2012 18:34
Subject: Re: [NNSD] Mass meeting and rally advocating Newa Rajya

Dear Ratna Sansarjee,

I would like to join you in your advocacy of the inadvisability of a separate Newar state by adding that such a development would be counterproductive for the Newars themselves too, even as it would also be detrimental for the development of other regions and people in the country. Compared to what the Newars were like socio-economically at the time of the end of the Rana regime when the country broke its international isolation, more than anybody else it has been the Newars who have gained immensely in terms of social, economic and political growth. While they traditionally enjoyed dominance in trade, government service and access to education, today Newars have even excelled Bahuns in HDI in Nepal, and that has been possible due to the fact that Kathmandu valley has always been the hub of all development activities in Nepal that have steadily been on the rise both in its range of functions, their magnitude and their outreacfh in and out of the country. This has been further aided by the steady rise in its population, made possible by the absence of restriction to move into the valley. Most of today's Newars in Kathmandu is a cosmopolitan man and his society of reference is the international community. Its one single example is that despite the provision of a separate department for Nepal Bhasa (i.e. Newari) in the TU, they are hardpressed to find students, more so at advantced levels. While there are a few self-styled Newar leaders too demanding Newa Rajya (the Maoist assignment) or the Nepal Mandala (the demand of the ethnic Newar chauvanists), most Newars do not want themselves to be caged in all over again into any arbitrarily defined territory and feud against all manners of caste ethnic people, living in and outside its boundary. While such federalisation of the country should have been put to a referendum to start with, the Maoists, who learnt the art of divide and rule from their mentors in India who themselves inherited it from their British colonial masters, did not happen to believe in public opinion; they want to impose their own ideas-unbaked, half-baked or whatever--on the people on the strength of the barrel of the gun that they had procured from outside too. If nobody else, the Newars at least must send the message that the time is for greater and wider integration like in Euprope, SE Asia, North and South America and so on to benefit from the ever more potent factor of economy of scale in the development of mankind.

Warm regards

Bihari Krishna Shrestha

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Fresh mandate including on ethnocentric state restructuring

May 30, 2012
Dear Colleague

As we need a constitution written and promulgated by the representatives of people, we need to elect a CA again; even at a huge cost to the treasury. Those opposing fresh mandate are doing so on procedural grounds and they will eventually have to accept it. it is not only fait accompli but need of the country.

Knowing full well that you will disagree with my view that ethnocentric state restructuring would have been a bigger disaster than having CA run its course without promulgating a constitution. The silver lining of current mess is the fact that the voters/people are being afforded an opportunity to discuss/deliberate pros and cons of ethnocentric state restructuring and choose their representatives accordingly. In last election people took the word federalism as just an embellishment; its manifestations and ramifications were least understood.
If the opinion poll conducted/reported by a number of institutes reflect people’s feelings approximately then the political parties advocating ethnocentric state restructuring will run a rout if an election could be held. Between not having a constitution and a constitution cursed with ethnocentric conflict, I take the former as lesser of the evil.

On the other hand, I will say “Amen” (tathastu) if people choose political parties backing ethnocentric state restructuring in the next election; meaning I will have no choice but to accept ethnocentric state restructuring.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: ...
Sent: Tuesday, May 29, 2012 17:38
To: Ratna Sansar Shrestha
Subject: Re: FW: Extension of CA's term by 3 months

Dear Ratna Sansarji,

How do you find the opposition from NC and UML - the so-called democratic parties - for fresh mandate?

I am surprised that UCPNM, which stands to bear the wrath of the people or the backlash from people to the maximum for all their manipulations, are suddenly becoming bolder and throwing a challenge to these democratic parties.

With best regards

On Sun, May 27, 2012 at 11:43 AM, Ratna Sansar Shrestha wrote:

Anyone who claims to believe in democracy cannot be against a democratic exercise like referendum. I am in full support of it.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

I am a pupil of Einstein

May 20, 2012
Dr Ramesh Khatiwada
Subject: RE: [NNSD] Mass meeting and rally advocating Newa Rajya

Ramesh jee

Thanks a lot for your encouraging words.

Although I am not a scientist like Einstein, I am a pupil of him in the matter of ethnocentric chauvinism.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: [] On Behalf Of Dr Ramesh Khatiwada
Sent: Saturday, May 19, 2012 18:19
Subject: Re: [NNSD] Mass meeting and rally advocating Newa Rajya

Ranta Sansar Jiu,

The principle you, Vijay Lama jee and other highly respected sons and daughters of Nepal has taken is very much appreciable.

Right now many of us are feeling like Albert Einstein felt some 100 years back.

“At such a time as this, one realizes what a sorry species of animal one belongs to.”

Albert Einstein was only one of four intellectuals in Germany to sign a manifesto opposing Germany’s entry into I World War. Disgusted, he called the nationalism “the measles of mankind.” He would write, “At such a time as this, one realizes what a sorry species of animal one belongs to.”

Saturday, May 26, 2012

Extension of CA's term by 3 months

Mechanically speaking Parliament has power to amend any provision of the constitution in accordance with Article 148; including Article 64 which has fixed the term of CA as, initially, 2 years. It is said that “Parliament can do everything except, making a woman a man or a man a woman”. But no parliament in the world has run amok as such and that is the beauty of democracy; even popularly elected parliament doesn’t have certain powers which can only be vested in the voters; including how long they want to have a particular group of parliamentarians represent them.

Therefore, the provision related to the term of the parliament is universally held sacrosanct as a body elected by the people cannot self-perpetuate itself by tampering with the provision related to the term. If the parliament is to be deemed to have power to amend this clause and allow it to act unbridled as such it could even go to the extent of becoming not only ridiculous but ludicrous as well. The parliament can even be deemed to have power to pass an amendment to Article 54, for example, enshrining right for every elected MP to choose her/his nominee to become an MP after her/his demise (it can amend as such with two-third majority). Therefore, no parliament can and should have power to amend the provision related to term of the parliament and that is why nowhere in the world parliaments use any such right to self-perpetuate.

The silver lining of going against this convention will be that the parliaments all over the world could be self perpetuated as long as the parliamentarians wish to, simply by amending the provision related to the term of the parliament; thereby saving a huge amount of money that has to be spent for holding election. The whole world put together can save unimaginable quantum of money by simply extending term of the respective parliaments by amending a related provision.

But this is simply not done anywhere in the world, because the voters need to be afforded an opportunity to review the performance of the people they elected every so often and new blood injected into the parliament. An anomaly can be drawn with the expiry date of the medicine; after the expiry of which the medicine will not only be no good, but could even be poisonous. But one can easily extend the validity of the medicine by simply changing the label which “dictates” the expiry time.

British parliament tried something similar in 1649 but Oliver Cromwell (who ended British monarchy by decapitating Charles I) chased away the MPs and no parliament worth a name all over the world has dared to self-perpetuate themselves after that. I trust people will not misconstrue my statement as an encouragement for someone in Nepal to emulate Cromwell.

I had published an article on this very topic on 18th Phalgun 2066 even before the actual 2 year term ended on 14th Jestha 2066 which you can peruse by clicking the link below:

Most importantly, a bill passed by the parliament becomes an Act only after it is certified by the President under Article 87. President also needs to adhere to the verdict of Supreme Court, besides accepting the advice of both executive (cabinet which has decided in favor of the extension) and legislature (which would pass extension bill). Therefore, he will not have right to sign the bill to render it into an Act without which the term of CA will not get extended. What will happen if he fails/refuses to sign the bill after 14th Jestha 2069? Nepal will be looking at a big void (vacuum) with rampant anarchy. On the other hand if he signs such a bill into an Act, then he will be committing contempt of Supreme Court and could be prosecuted. Many a lawyers worth their salt will jump at the opportunity.

Therefore, as a medicine whose “date” has expired needs to be dumped, present CA has exceeded its expiry date and it is high time Supreme Court verdict is honored and alternatives planned before “expiry” of 14th Jestha 2069. One good alternative is to amend Article 63 (3) (ka) to limit number of members to about 200 MPs and conduct fresh election.

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

I, although am a Newar, who takes pride in being a Newar, am not in favor of creating Newa Rajya. Why?

People are equating Nepal’s future polity without federalism (if 10 odd states on ethnocentric lines aren’t created) with former King Gyanendra’s rule. Gyanendra’s rule was no democracy and Panchayati system was no different. Similarly, even so called constitutional monarchy introduced in 1990 was only a little better; weakness of which Gyanendra was able to exploit to the hilt. However, under all three past political systems, at least in the eyes of constitution, all Nepali people were deemed equal.

Now what is being planned will make 10 odd ethnocentric groups more equal than the remaining 108 ethnocentric groups. I don’t believe that almost 20,000 Nepali people (mainly during people’s war) sacrificed their lives to create a constitution that will have 108 ethnocentric communities rendered less equal. Reminds one of the “Animal Farm” (by George Orwell). I am surprised that people have yet to learn from George Orwell.

Under the federal structure envisaged, it won’t be a new Nepal; rather a worse Nepal where 108 ethnocentric communities out of 118 ethnocentric communities will be become second class citizen and will be ruled by the minority.

We should not let the future generations have reason to curse us for leaving ethnocentric conflict brewing or boiling; they could even be impelled to think that we have committed high treason for failing to speak up at the right time and being instrumental in potential disintegration of our motherland. Ethnocentric conflict is highly likely to lead Nepal to follow the path of Yugoslavia (which does not exist anymore), Rwanda, Sudan, etc.

Implementing federalism on its own will not cause fragmentation of this country. But state restructuring on ethnocentric lines will definitely cause it.

State restructuring to implement federalism isn’t something as simple as delineating 75 districts or 14 zones or even 5 development regions especially as the proposed states are to have right to self determination and autonomy which wasn’t the case with 75 districts or 14 zones or even 5 development regions.

Therefore, I, although am a Newar, who takes pride in being a Newar, am not in favor of creating Newa Rajya.

Moreover, by creating the mayhem that we are witnessing now, the game plan is becoming clear: to ensure no constitution. In this backdrop people need to pause and think who benefits from all these. Meaning efforts are being made to sabotage the constituent assembly. There are many who didn’t want sovereign people write their own constitution through CA in the first place. People advocating restoration of monarchy are already highly encouraged and enthused by all this. Similarly, there are already people asking for revival of 1990 constitution. Playing into hands of these people isn’t a prudent thing to do at this juncture.

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

FW: [NNSD] Mass meeting and rally advocating Newa Rajya

May 22, 2012 5:49

To: Shankar Limbu

Shankar jee

I thank you for your magnanimity; I wish other supporters of ethnocentric state restructuring were as magnanimous like yourself. Although I am a highly chauvinistic Newar, my circle of friendship includes a lot more people from amongst, Limbus, Kirats, Dalits and from, recently declared, Khas Aryas than Newars (very surprisingly I have very few Newar friends and I am sorry for it). Your response proves that I have been correct in my choice of friends.

However, unfortunately for us, what you have enunciated below isn’t going to be stipulated in the constitution being drafted. If we allow the politicos to follow their whims Limbu friends of mine in Kathmandu will be rendered second class citizen as Newars will be entitled to special preemptive right in Newa Rajya and as they will have no access to governance (governor, ministers including chief minister and other officials of the state will be from amongst Newars). This is blatantly unfair and against the principles of fundamental rights.

People, rightly, don’t like unitary system and I fully support such people. However, one needs to remember that even in planned 10 to 14 ethnocentric states, the unitary system will persist. What can mitigate this problem has been completely forgotten. Even decentralization will not serve the purpose. Only if the constitution is to empower local government (not just the provincial government) to promulgate laws relevant to local level will the unitary system disintegrate. People have completely forgotten this, almost as if they are barking up the wrong tree.

I would like to reiterate here that I neither oppose federalism nor state restructuring on ethnocentric lines. The point I am trying to make (looks like unsuccessfully as I even have failed to make it clear to you) is that if only about 10 states are to be created on ethnocentric basis then it will infringe basic human right of remaining 108 ethnocentric communities.
With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: [] On Behalf Of Shankar Limbu
Sent: Saturday, May 19, 2012 16:51
Subject: Re: [NNSD] Mass meeting and rally advocating Newa Rajya

Dear Ratna Sansarji

Do not worry, I am Limbu from Limbuwan, I support Newa Rajya and Newar living in Limbuwan they support Limbuwan. Autonomy within autonomy, self-governance arrangement respecting everyone's right manage your so-called fear. This is the only way we can balance power sharing among all by resembling power from few who have been holding from the

benefit of Unitary system. I suggest to think beyond the conventional definition of democracy and rights simply it did not work out that is our experience.

Monday, May 21, 2012

सीमान्तकृत, बहिस्कृत, पाखापारिएकाहरुको पहिचानको आधारमा संघियता

भनिन्छ आदीबासी, जनजाति, दलित, मधेशी र महिला सीमान्तकृत, बहिस्कृत तथा पाखापारिएका छन् । त्यसैले पहिचानको आधारमा संघियतामाको मांग जोडदाररुपमा गरिंदैछ ।

आदीबासी, जनजाति, दलित, मधेशी आदि सीमान्तकृत, बहिस्कृत, पाखापारिएका छन् भने यिनका महिलावर्ग दोहरै सीमान्तकृत, बहिस्कृत, पाखापारिएका छन् । सीमान्तकृत, बहिस्कृत नभएका अभिजात्यवर्गका महिलाहरु पनि सीमान्तकृत, बहिस्कृत तथा पाखापारिएका छन् ।

यस्तोमा पहिचानको आधारमा यदि कुनै समूहलाई राज्यको आवश्यकता छ भने महिलावर्गको पहिचानको आधारमा राज्य खडा गर्नु सबभन्दा धेरै आवश्यक छ । तर यसतर्फ कसैको ध्यान गएकोछैन । नारीबादी समूह, गैरसरकारी संस्थाहरुले समेत यस तर्फ पहल नगर्नु आश्चर्यजनक छ, सोचनिय कुरा हो ।

तर व्यवाहरिक रुपमा हेर्ने हो भने महिलावर्गको पहिचानको आधारमा राज्य खडा हुन सक्दैन । खडा गरेर सम्पूर्ण महिलावर्गलाई यो राज्यमा बसाउंदा श्रृष्टि नैं पनि चल्दैन ।

महिलावर्गको छुट्टै राज्य व्यवहारिक नभए जस्तै ११८ मध्ये १० वटा समूहलाई मात्र छुट्टै राज्य दिनु बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण हुन्न । छुट्टा छुट्टै राज्यहरु बनाउने हो भने ११८ वटै समूहका साथै आधा आकाश समेट्ने गरेर एउटा छुट्टै महिलावर्गको पहिचानमा आधारित राज्य समेत गरेर ११९ राज्य आवश्यक हुन आउंछ, जुन सम्भव देखिंदैन ।
सबभन्दा महत्वपूर्ण कुरा के हो भने यथास्थितिमा ११९ राज्य खडा गर्दैमा बहिस्करण, सीमान्तिकरण आदिको समस्या समाधान हुंदैन । समाधान स्थानिय निकायलाई कानून जारी गर्ने अधिकार निक्षेपणमा छ ।
Ratna Sansar Shrestha

“बाहुन चोर देश छोड” ! !

“बाहुन चोर देश छोड” ! !

के भनेको हो ? के गर्न लागेको हो ?

हिजोको बन्दमा “बाहुन चोर देश छोड” भन्ने नारा पनि घन्कियो । माओबादीका भातृसंगठनहरु बन्दको आयोजक मध्येका हुन् । अनि एमाओबादी दलका अध्यक्ष, अन्य उपाध्यक्ष तथा धेरै पदाधिकारी बाहुन छन् । त्यस्तै प्रधानमन्त्री, मन्त्रीहरुमा बाहुनको बाहुल्य छ, एमाओबादीको प्रतिनिधित्व गर्नेहरु पनि । त्यसैलै यो नारा अचम्मको छ र यो त गजबको बिडम्बना पनि भयो ।

प्रजातन्त्र (जसलाई अहिले लोकतन्त्र भनिन्छ)मा एउटा नेपालीले अर्को नेपालीले देशबाट खेद्ने कुरा गर्न मिल्छ र ?

हुन त मैलाई पनि “नेपाल मण्डल” छोडेर जाउ भनिएको थियो, जातिय, धार्मिक, सास्कृतिक, भाषागत (ethnocentric) आधारमा देशलाई ११८ प्रदेश बनाउन पर्ने बाध्यात्मक अवस्थामा पुग्नु बुद्धिमत्तापूण कुरा होइन भन्ने धारणा व्यक्त गर्दा । के प्रजातन्त्र (लोकतन्त्र)मा अभिव्यक्ति स्वतंत्रता हुंदैन ? त्यसो भए यस्तो प्रजातन्त्र (लोकतन्त्र)को के काम ?

सायद मानिसहरुलाई यहि कुरा सोच्न, भन्न बाध्य पारेर प्रतिगमनको षडयन्त्र हुंदैछ । सके राजतन्त्र फर्काउने नसके २०४७ को संविधान ब्युंताउने !

बन्दकर्ताहरु पनि यस तर्फ सचेत हुन आवश्यक छ ।
Ratna Sansar Shrestha

Sunday, May 20, 2012

Newa Rajya - mass meeting and rally in support of

Mass meeting and rally is being planned for today demanding Newa Rajya with right to self determination, autonomy as well special preemptive right to Newa populace in Newa Rajya. Selfishly thinking, I also fancy having a Newa Rajya where all ministers including governor, chief minister and other officials of the state will be from amongst Newars.

However, thinking hard, I also realize that this will disenfranchise Newars residing outside Newa Rajya. Similarly, in order to justify creation of a Newa Rajya as such we will have to create other 117 ethnocentric states with right to self determination, autonomy as well special preemptive right to the particular ethnocentric community in whose name the state is created.
While doing introspection, it is clear that this will not be simple geographic delineation like 75 districts or 14 zones or even 5 development regions. These 118 ethnocentric states will be enshrined with right to self determination, autonomy as well special preemptive right. This will be a very costly affair for a backward country like ours.

Having said the above I am sure that many people will point out to me that there is no talk of creating over 100 states; it is merely a matter of creating around 10 states. In this respect what people are ignoring is the normal human behavior that if you give something to only a few ethnocentric communities, it will not take too long for other ethnocentric communities to rise and assert their right. This is very well demonstrated by the demand for separate states for Thamis, Rana Tharus (not all Tharus), etc. Besides, it is also it amounts to discrimination to create a few states with right to self determination, autonomy as well special preemptive right while others aren’t availed the same. Therefore, state restructuring on ethnocentric lines will be tantamount to opening a Pandora’s Box from which demands for creation of new states will be made every day (when they start facing and feeling the discrimination).

Moreover, let’s presume that remaining 108 ethnocentric communities will not demand their own states but these will be deprived from right to self determination as well as right to autonomy. This amounts to blatant discrimination which is against the tenet of human right internationally accepted. Further, due to the provision of especial preemptive right, those not getting their own states will be relegated to minority rule and also will be rendered second class citizen.
In above backdrop I am not in favor of a separate Newa Rajya with right to self determination, autonomy as well special preemptive right. I had to stop being selfish due to above reasons.
I firmly believe that we should have 3 states on the basis of 3 major river systems of Nepal.

Saturday, May 19, 2012

Female feoticide

May 18, 2012

Dear Mr Aamir Khan

I also happened to watch the first episode of your program: “Satyamev Jayate” and couldn’t resist from sending in my comments, although you wouldn’t expect comment from people like me as I am not an Indian citizen; I am a Nepali.

Your program was so heartrending that I was impelled to write following lines.

Female feticide is also rampant in Nepal and people from Nepal used to travel to India for the purpose earlier and now, I am told, such facilities are available in Nepal itself, including in Kathmandu. You have thrown light on this aspect very touchingly.

However, there is another, subtler side of the same coin. Even highly educated people (people from amongst my contemporaries and friends too) keep on producing a brood of daughters in their endeavor to produce a male offspring. If one is to try to gaze how female offspring of the couple would feel, it will become evident that similar violence is being perpetrated/perpetuated against girls in another form. All along they distinctly could feel that they aren’t what their parents wanted and are being tolerated for lack of option. A female fetus aborted gets killed at one stroke. But a girl child made to feel unwanted in pursuit of a son gets “killed” each moment, every day.

People say that daughters are almost like sons; as if comparing gold and bronze and deducing that both are similar because of the color. The girls can do anything and everything that boys could do; even better in some case. The daughters can do one more thing than the boys; give continuity to the God’s creation – they can become mother. Boys cannot become mothers!

In my considered opinion, if boys are bronze then girls are gold; not the other way around. I am blessed with two daughters (not any son! which is a nagging question that people ask me with “pity”) and have never aspired for a son. Both of my daughters are chartered accountants and are well settled

Thursday, May 17, 2012

humilate people like Bihari K. Shrestha

May 16, 2012
Cc: Bihari K Shrestha
Subject: RE: [NNSD] Re: Limited opportunities and society in ferment

It is unbecoming on the part of Ms Lucky Sherpa to use condescending words as such against a citizen of this country. She needs to remember that the salaries of the people in the governance (including parliamentarians) are paid from the taxes paid by the citizen. Bihari jee is a highly respected and upright citizen of this country and enjoys much more respect than any particular member of CA; actually more than 601 CA members put together. One just needs to see what people in Nepal are saying about 601 CA members.

She even tried to denigrate Bihari jee by tampering with his name by addressing him as Mr Bihari @shrestha. One needs to be careful with other people’s name. I am sure that Lucky jee too wouldn’t like to be reciprocated as such (by tampering with her name).

The beauty of democracy lies in the right to express opinion and each and every citizen is entitled to her/his own opinion. Similarly, people also have right to disagree with other people’s views. Nobody should take such things personally and use abusive language after exhausting ideas to counter the opinion put forth by another person. Discussion/discourse helps fine tune ideas as our ancient saying has specified वादे वादे जायते तत्व बोधः

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: [] On Behalf Of Man Bahadur K.C.

Sent: Monday, May 14, 2012 16:33
Subject: Re: [NNSD] Re: Limited opportunities and society in ferment

Hon'ble Lucky Sherpa ji ,

You dont have right to humilate people like Bihari K. Shrestha, a time tested good and fair administrator. Lucky ji , please note down a poem of Lekh Nath Paudel "chhoto bade pachhi bhari phurti badauchha ,urlado khare hera kattiko gadgadauchha."

Dr. Man Bahadur K.C.
Senior Consultant Cardiologist
Shahid Gangalal National Heart Center
Bansbari, Kathmandu

--- On Sat, 5/12/12, Lucky Sherpa wrote:
From: Lucky Sherpa
Subject: Re: [NNSD] Re: Limited opportunities and society in ferment
To: ""
Cc: ""
Date: Saturday, May 12, 2012, 9:09 AM

Mr Bihari @shrestha

I believe u are not joining this discussion to make people confuse since u have almost failed to convince. Your negative ideology on the issues of indigenous people's I believe is much more influenced by ur personal class and egoism within your own community. Please always keep in mind that if your so called ideology is not respected in ur own community I am sorry to say that it would be very hard to find that respect in these kinds of forum. May ur community gives u all the power u deserve to convince people but not to confuse.
Lucky Sherpa
Member of parliament / constituent assembly

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

1% elite and the rest marginalized

May 15, 2012

Subject: RE: [NNSD] I am Nepal
Every word from Leela Manijee manifests the truth that people are trying their level best to evade.

Excepting for a few ethnocentric communities, most of the ethnocentric communities have a few elites (1%) while 99% could hardly be described as elite. Besides, only a few of those who could be called elites have become a person that could be described as an elite due to the largesse bestowed by the state, while most have done so by dint of their sheer dedication, hard work and after making many a sacrifice, themselves or their families.
With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst
From: [] On Behalf Of LeelaMani Paudyal
Sent: Monday, May 14, 2012 16:43
Subject: Re: [NNSD] I am Nepal

Dear vijayaji, anil ji and all

Although I was not in a mood to respond to anyone who have invested wisdom to prove their intellectual calibre, I could not stop myself when I read anil ji and vijayaji. I salute vijayaji and anil ji both and I do share similar sentiments as you both have expressed here in this platform.

I was born and brought up in the mid hill of the western part of nepal. My father is now 79 and mother too at the same age, who are still working in agriculture field and feeding cattles just not for fun but for their livelihood. As far as I know, my latest 9th generation is living there and have never occupied any public position, forget about getting benefit from state power. Presently, from my current position, I am fortunate to share my views on a global platform as this and write comments in my poor English although many of my childhood colleagues are struggling hard in some Arab countries and others in Indian cities as Darbans, domestic servants and Chaukidars majority of them are Brahmins and chettris. I am the first generation government post holder, formal or informal, in my entire 9 generations and came here facing lots of hardships and difficulties. Under such circumstances, I feel disheartened when I am classified as rulling pahade elite or migrant (as against indigenous) and my family is debarred from any quota and reservation system because I have the family name" title" that is categorized as a ruling privileged class. I am not intending to share my personal life here with any expectations or privileges but would like to shares with you all a story that matches hundreds of thousands Nepalese who are deprived of basic life amenities but still fall under the category of ruling elite? What reactions would they have once they understand the very fact that they are unevenly treated considering them as the privileged racial group? I have travelled across 70 districts of the country and have seen abject poverty among brahmins and chettries too. Definitely Dalits are deprived from basic services due to untouchability, but for others, I doubt that discrimination was based on ethnicity.

I am still unable to understand the rationales, justifications and circumstances that any family has to sacrifice for other who never have hold any position in government in the past and no any privilege he or she has received in the past from the state? How can we categorize such people as privileged ruling elites? Someone can respond to this as an individual case but what if similar conditions arises for hundreds of thousands of families? Please allow me to ask a question to those who blame all brahmin and chettries as a ruling elite being a Brahmin or a Pahadi. What have my ancestors really done to deprive any of you of getting fair share of state power and resources so that my children and I have to compensate you and your children?


Monday, May 14, 2012

RE: Resource colonization

May 14, 2012
Prof. Dr Mohan Lohani
Tribhuvan University
Dear Dr Lohani

You have articulated the sentiment in excellent manner.

Lord Pashupati Nath seems to have given me necessary elements to endeavor to safeguard our national integrity and her resources. But you need to remember the off repeated statement about एक्ला बृहस्पती. Therefore, more and more people need to do introspection and also speak up. Concerted voices in unison will be a lot more effective than solitary voice.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: Mohan Lohani []
Sent: Saturday, May 12, 2012 8:45
To: Ratna Sansar Shrestha
Subject: Re: Resource colonization
Dear Ratna Sansarji,

Such colonization,if carried too far,will leave this country bereft of everything except barren hills and fallow land without water and snow-fed rivers which are the source of our survival.May Lord Pashupati Nath give you more strength to safeguard our national integrity and interest for the common good of the people.


Mohan Lohani

From: Ratna Sansar Shrestha
To: 'Mohan Lohani'
Sent: Thursday, May 10, 2012 5:41 PM
Subject: RE: Resource colonization

Dear Dr Lohani


Resource colonization is getting perpetuated just not because of those wishing to colonize Nepal’s resources, it is happening due to reverse colonialism. Reverse colonialism entails people of Nepal abetting resource colonization which is done in many ways. There is a distinct group of people in Nepal who abet colonization of our resources by advocating (1) Bhutan model (entailing Nepal surrendering defense and foreign affairs) and (2) deployment of Indian security force in Nepal to ensure security of export oriented projects. Others subscribing to reverse colonialism want Nepal Army to be taken care of by Indian government or opine that Nepal’s sovereignty shouldn’t come in the way of development of hydropower.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: Mohan Lohani []
Sent: Thursday, May 10, 2012 22:09
To: Ratna Sansar Shrestha
Subject: Re: Resource colonization

Dear Ratna Sansarji,

Thanks for your article on "Resource Colonization" which is further evidence of your commitment to national interest.But the people of this country are helpless and hapless as we are destined to be governed by the parties and their leaders who are concerned about the welfare of others rather than our own welfare.We allow them to build dams within our territory and submerge our land while giving them all facilities such as irrigating thousands of hectares of their land and making their people's lives comfortable and prosperous. This is how our precious resource is being colonized.

Tks and regds,

Mohan Lohani

Thursday, May 10, 2012

जलश्रोतको औपनिबेसिक दोहन

प्रकृतिले प्रदान गरेको श्रोतसाधनको दोहनबाट प्रत्येक देश समृद्ध÷सम्पन्न बन्दछ । पहिले “हरियो वन, नेपालको धन” भनिन्थ्यो, तर वन–जंगलको अत्यधिक दोहन भएर पनि समृद्धि÷सम्पन्नता आएन । त्यस्तै जलश्रोतमा धनी देशका एक चौथाई जनसंख्याकोमा धारा भएपनि पानी आउंदैन भने बांकी घरहरुमा धाराको अभावमा स्वच्छ पानी उपयोग गर्नु बिलासिता भएकोेछ । यसले गर्दा झाडापखाला देखि टाइफाइड सम्मका रोगहरु लाग्नाले जनशक्तीको उत्पादकत्व घटेकोछ । पिउन र सरसफाईको लागि स्वच्छ पानीे मात्र उपलब्ध भए वार्षिक दशौं अर्ब रुपैया औषधोपचार खर्च बच्नेथियो ।

मध्ययुगिन दोहन पद्धति
अर्को मुलुकको विकासको लागि आफ्नो मुलुकको प्राकृतिक श्रोतको उत्खनन्÷दोहन गर्नुलाई औपनिवेसिक दोहन भनिन्छ । भारत लगायतका उपनिबेसहरु स्वतंत्र नहुन्जेल यस्तो मध्ययुगिन पद्धतिमा दोहन हुन्थ्यो र उपनिबेसहरुको अर्थतन्त्र समृद्ध÷सम्पन्न भएको उदाहरण छैन । प्राकृतिक श्रोत आफ्नै देशको हितमा उपयोग गर्ने मुलुकहरु भने समृद्ध÷सम्पन्न छन् ।

१९२० मा महाकाली नदीमा शारदा बाँध निर्माण गरेर नेपालको जलश्रोतको औपनिबेसिक दोहन प्रारम्भ गरिएकोमा १९५० पछि कोशी तथा गण्डक सन्धीहरु अन्तर्गत बाँधहरु निर्मित भएर औपनिवेसिक दोहनले निरन्तरता पायो । यी आयोजनाको उद्देश्य बाढी नियन्त्रण, सिंचाई तथा बिद्युत उत्पादन हो । तर बाढी नियन्त्रण तथा सिंचाईबाट नेपाल लाभान्वित हुन्न (नभएकोमा आश्चर्यचकित हुन आवश्यक पनि छैन) किनभने यी भारतमा बाढी नियन्त्रण तथा सिंचाइको लागि निर्माण भएकोहो । तर डुबान र बिस्थापनको समस्या नेपालले भोगेर बाढी नियन्त्रण तथा सिंचाइको लाभ भारतको पोल्टामा पार्नु जलश्रोतको औपनिबेसिक दोहन उत्कृष्ट नमूना हो । नेपालमा बिनास गरेर भारतलाई लाभ ।

महाकाली सन्धी अन्तर्गत पंचेश्वर आयोजनामा पनि औपनिबेसिक दोहनको प्रयास हुैदंछ । आयोजनाको जलाशयको लागि आवश्यक जमिन मध्ये ४५ प्रतिशत नेपालमा डुबाएर त्यसैको अनुपातमा स्थानिय बासिन्दा बिस्थापित हुन्छन् तर सिंचाईबाट भारत अत्यधिक लाभान्वित हुन्छ (नेपालमा ९३ हजार हेक्टरमा सिंचाई हुन्छ तर भारतमा १६ लाख हेक्टरमा) भने बाढी नियन्त्रणबाट पूर्णतः भारत लाभान्वित हुन्छ ।

जलबिद्युतको औपनिबेसिक दोहन
नेपालमा हजारौं मेगावाट बिजुली उत्पादन गर्न सकिन्छ, तर नेपालीहरु दशकौं देखि लोडसेडिंगको मारमा छन भने आधा जनसंख्याको बिजुलीमा पहुंच छैन । बिजुलीको अभावमा औद्योगिकरण नभएकोले बरोजगार युवायुवति बाध्यताबस् बिदेश पलायन हुन्छन, आर्थिक मात्र होइन, यौन शोषणमा पनि पर्छन र अझ मानव बेचबिखनको शिकार सम्म हुन्छन् । तर बिजुली भारत निकासी गर्ने गरेर अरुण तेश्रो, माथिल्लो कर्णाली, लिखु, आदि जलबिद्युत आयोजनाहरुको लाईसेन्सहरु दिइन्छ । नेपालमा औद्योगिकरण तथा रोजगारी श्रृजना गर्न बिजुलीको व्यवस्था गरिन्न । औपनिबेसिक दोहनको यो अर्को रुप हो ।

भारतीय दृष्टिकोणबाट यस्तो दोहन
भारतमा बिनास (डुबानमा तथा बिस्थापन) गरेर भएपनि भारतमै विकास (बाढी नियन्त्रण तथा सिंचाई) गर्नु स्वाभाविक हो । तर नेपालमा बिनास गरेर निर्मित बाँधबाट भारतमा विकास गर्नु भारतीय हिसाबले प्राकृतिक श्रोतको दोहनको उत्कृष्ट पद्धति हो । दुष्प्रभाव (बिनास) जत्ति नेपालमा अनि लाभ (विकास) जत्ति भारतमा । यो पद्धतिलाई किन औपनिवेसिक दोहन भनिन्छ भन्ने आफै स्पष्ट हुन्छ ।

बेलायत जस्ता साम्राज्यबादी मुलुकहरुले भारत लगायतका उपनिवेशमा यहि पद्धतिमा प्राकृतिक श्रोतको दोहन गरेर आफू समृद्धिशाली बने भने यो पद्धतिसमेतको बिरोधमा क्रान्तीको लहर चलेकोले, दृष्टान्ततः कहिल्यै घाम नअस्ताउने भनिएको साम्राज्यबादी शक्ती संयुक्त अधिराज्यका केहि टापुमा खुम्चिएकोछ । अहिले छिमेकी मुलुकहरुप्रति भारतको यहि रवैया छ । भारत संरक्षित राज्य भुटानको परराष्ट्र तथा प्रतिरक्षा मामिला आफ्नो मातहतमा भएकैले भुटानको प्राकृतिक श्रोतको औपनिवेसिक दोहन हुनुमा कुनै आश्चर्य छैन । तर सार्वभौम मुलुक नेपालको प्राकृतिक श्रोतको औपनिवेसिक दोहन हुनु दुखःद हो ।

औपनिबेसिक बौद्धिकता
भारतले नेपाललाई कहिल्यै पनि उपनिवेश त के संरक्षित राज्य सम्म पनि भन्ने आंट गरेको छैन । तर १९५० को सन्धी अन्तर्गत विशेष सम्बन्धको जामा पहि¥याएर नेपालको प्राकृतिक श्रोतमा हालिमुहालि गर्ने अभिलाषा तथा आंकाक्षा राखेकैछ । नेपालको जलश्रोतमा भारतको असीमित पहुंचको प्रत्याभूतिको शर्तमा १९९० को जनआन्दोलनलाई मत्थर पार्न सहयोग गर्न खोजेकोमा तत्कालिन राजाले बरु आप्mनै जनतालाई सार्वभौम बनाएर भारतीय महत्वाकांक्षामा तुषारापात गरे ।

बरु जनआन्दोलनबाट स्थापित कृष्णप्रसाद भट्टराईको अन्तरिम सरकारले भारतीय नाकाबन्दी खुलाउने क्रममा नेपालको नदी नालालाई दिल्लीमा “साझा” घोषणा गर्नपुगे । तर आम निर्वाचनमा प्रधानमन्त्री भट्टराई पराजित भएकोले त्यसलाइर्, शौभाग्यबस्, औपचारिकता दिने काम हुनसकेन । त्यस्तै २००९ मे महिनामा प्रधानमन्त्री पदबाट राजिनामा गर्ने अवस्था आउंदा प्रचण्डलाई नेपालको जलश्रोतमाथि भारतको पनि हक लाग्ने अवधारणा मानेको भए राजिनामा गर्न नपर्ने स्थिति बनाउने आश्वासन दिइएको थियो । तर प्रचण्डले राजिनामा गरेर जलश्रोतको औपनिवेसिक दोहनको बिपक्षमा आफूलाई खडा गरे ।

तर कतिपय बुद्धिजीवि, राजनीतिकर्मी, कर्मचारीतन्त्र, व्यापारी, बैंक तथा वित्तिय संस्थाका संचालकहरुलाई प्राकृतिक श्रोतको औपनिवेशिक दोहन स्वीकार्य देखिन्छ र यसको बिपक्षमा उभिनेलाई विकास बिरोधीको बिल्ला भिराएर नवसाम्राज्यबादको तावेदारी गर्ने गरेको देखिन्छ । यो तप्काले घरमा बत्ति बाल्दा सडक उज्यालो हुनेसंग जलाशययुक्त आयोजनाको तल्लो तटीय लाभलाई तुलना गरेर बौद्धिक दरिद्रता प्रदर्शन गर्छन, नेपालमा बिनास गरेर भारतलाई लाभान्वित गर्ने प्रपञ्च रच्छन् ।

विश्व बैंक, एशियाली बिकास बैंक तथा कतिपय बैदेशिक तथा स्वदेशी गैर सरकारी संस्था पनि बिनास जति नेपालमा र छिमेकि मुलुकको बिकास हुनेगरेर प्राकृतिक श्रोतको दोहनको पैरबी गरेर प्राकृतिक श्रोतको औपनिबेसिक दोहनमा सघाउंछन् ।

आयोजना विशेष कार्यान्वयन हुने कुरा संचार माध्यममा संप्रेषण भएपछि त्यसबाट नेपालको स्वार्थ सम्बद्र्धन हुन्छ कि हुन्न भनेर विश्लेष्ण गर्दा यो तप्काले चित्त दुखाउंछ, आयोजना बन्नै लाग्दा राष्ट्रघातको कुरा उठायो भनेर । अमूर्त तथा भावनात्मक राष्ट्रियताको कुरा मात्र नभएर राष्ट्रलाई आर्थिक÷वित्तिय घाटा पर्ने नैं भएर राष्ट्रघातको चर्चा गर्दा असहिष्णु प्रतिकृया जनाउनु औपनिवेसिक बौद्धिकता हो । यिनले भारतीयले लगानि गरेको आयोजनाको बिजुली भारत निकासी निर्विकल्प मान्छन् । तर चीनले लगानि गर्ने पश्चिम सेती आयोजनाको बिजुली चीन नलग्ने हुनाले यिनको निर्विकल्पता स्खलित भएकोछ ।

कोहि बुद्धिजीवि “भारतले आफ्नो लगानि सुरक्षित गर्न आवश्यक सुरक्षा आफैले गर्नुपर्ने पस्ताव पेश गर्नसक्छ । शक्ति राष्ट्रहरुद्वारा यस्ता प्रस्ताव राख्नुलाई अस्वाभाविक भन्ने गरिंदैन” भनेर सार्वभौम नेपालको भूभागमा भारतीय सुरक्षाकर्मीको उपस्थिति स्वीकार्य ठान्छन् भने कोहि नेपालमा भुटान मोडेलमा जलबिद्युत विकास गर्ने पैरबी गर्छन, भुटानले जस्तै परराष्ट्र तथा प्रतिरक्षा मामिला भारतलाई बुझाएर भएपनि । अर्काथरी त नेपाली सेनाको भरण पोषणको जिम्मा भारतलाई दिएर भएपनि जलबिद्युत विकास गर्नुपर्ने मान्यता राख्छन् । अझ अर्को तप्का जलबिद्युत विकासमा सार्वभौमसत्ता बाधक हुनुहुन्न भन्छन्, अर्थात सार्वभौमसत्ता गुमाएर भएपनि जलबिद्युत विकास गर्नुपर्ने ! यस्तोमा भारतले नेपालको प्राकृतिक श्रोतको औपनिवेसिक दोहनको आकांक्षा, अभिलाषा, अपेक्षा राख्नु आश्चर्यजनक होइन ।

उपयुक्त दोहन पद्धति
जसरी कुखुराको फुलको परिकार खान फुटाउनै पर्छ, त्यस्तै जलश्रोतबाट लाभान्वित हुन डुबान तथा बिस्थापन जस्ता दुष्प्रभावलाई आत्मसात गर्नैपर्छ । तर दुष्प्रभाव सबै नेपालमा र लाभ अन्यत्र हुने औपनिबेसिक दोहन पद्धति उपयुक्त हुन्न । नेपालमा थोरै दुष्प्रभाव पारेर धेरै नेपालीले र नेपालको अर्थतन्त्रले लाभ लिने गरेर नेपालको जलश्रोतको दोहन गरिनुपर्छ । नेपालको जलश्रोत दोहन गरेर उत्पादित बिजुली नेपालको औद्योगिकरणमा उपयोग गरिनुपर्छ र पेट्रोलियम पदार्थ बिस्थापन तथा उर्जा सुरक्षाको लागि समेत उच्च स्तरमा बिद्युतिकरण गर्नुपर्छ ।

Article on Resource Colonization by Ratna Sansar Shrestha
२०६९ बैशाख २८ गतेको सौर्य दैनिकमा प्रकाशित

Sunday, May 6, 2012

Principle propounded for reservoir project

May 6, 2012
Bihari Krishna Shrestha

Dear Bihari jee

Thanks a lot for following my writings.

Yes, the negative externalities of reservoir projects (manifest in inundation and involuntary displacement) should be commensurate to positive externalities (flood control and irrigation in Nepal as well as recompense India is willing to pay for the negative externalities suffered by Nepal).

With people a plenty in Nepal who think that building a storage project is like turning light at one’s home due to which some light is also spilled in the street, storage projects were on the anvil such that India stood to receive a flood control and irrigation benefits without lifting a finger. This now has started to change with West Seti planned to be built as a multipurpose project. The people India who expected to receive flood control and irrigation benefit for no cost will now start studying Prabhu commission report and plan how to ensure that they only have to pay very little, just a token amount. In my considered opinion, this will be a good start. The important part is the acknowledgement of downstream benefit, which so far Indians have been refusing to acknowledge, when hydrocracy in Nepal was ready to “spill light in Indian streets.”

Naumure is a very small project. For India Koshi high Dam is a matter of “do or die” as the life of Koshi barrage has already expired and one big cloud burst in the catchment area could wash even Patna away. The challenge lies in prepping up hydrocracy in Nepal.

With best regards,


Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA
Senior Water Resource Analyst

From: Bihari Shrestha []

Sent: Saturday, May 5, 2012 22:46

To: Ratna Sansar Shrestha

Subject: Re: Principle propounded for reservoir project

Dear Ratnajee,

Thank you for the write up on West Seti. The issues are very well-argued. Your suggestions regarding Naumure and Koshi high dam are particularly useful; it clearly states what should be the stance of the politicians and officisls while deciding on those projects in not too distant a future. Your suggestion that the capacity of those projects should be based on the consideration of Nepal's own need plus India's willingness to pay for the benefits is particularly helpful in terms of clarifying where Nepal's interest lay. Thank you again for sharing the article with me.

Just one curiosity: Do you think the decision on West Seti would now build new pressure on India to undertake the Naumure project with some urgency. Othersise, it never seems to leave the talking shop.

Warm regards


----- Original Message -----

From: Ratna Sansar Shrestha
To: Ratna Sansar Shrestha
Sent: Friday, May 04, 2012 6:47 PM
Subject: Principle propounded for reservoir project

Friday, May 4, 2012

पश्चिम सेतीमा प्रतिपादित सिद्धान्त

जलाशययुक्त आयोजनालाई बहुउद्देश्यीय बनाउनुपर्ने अवधारणा कोशेढुंगा बनेको छ ।

पश्चिम सेती आयोजनाबाट उच्च गुणस्तरको बिजुली सस्तोमा र नेपाली भूभाग डुबानमा पारेर तथा स्थानिय बासिन्दा बिस्थापित गराएर निर्माण हुने जलाशयमा संचित पानी सुख्खायाममा भारतलाई सित्तै उपलब्ध गराउने गरेर स्मेकलाई दिइएको इजाजतपत्रको खारेजीपछि नेपालको हितमा चिनिया कम्पनीले निर्माण गर्नेगरी वर्तमान सरकारले समझदारीपत्रमा दस्तखत गर्दा नेपाली जनता, विशेष गरेर सुदूर तथा मध्य पश्चिमांचल विकास क्षेत्रका नागरिक खुशी भए । तर संसदको प्राकृतिक श्रोत तथा साधन समितिले अचानक यस सम्बन्धी काम अगाडी नबढाउन निर्देशन दिंइदा धेरै नेपाली निराश हुनाको अलावा अत्तालिएर ब्यापक बिरोध भयो ।

स्मेकको इजाजतपत्र खारेज गरिंदा भारतको हितमा आयोजना कार्यान्वयन गराउन दत्तचित्त भएर लागेकाहरु दुखित भए भने संसदीय समितिले नयां समझदारीपत्रको कार्यान्वयन रोक्ने आदेश दिंदा आल्हादित पनि । तर संसदीय समितिमा नेपाली जनताको ढुकढुकी बुझ्ने जनप्रतिनिधिहरुको उपस्थितिले गर्दा सुख्खायाममा उपलब्ध हुने पानीबाट बहुआयामिक लाभ नेपाललाई प्राप्त हुनेगरेर बहुउद्देश्यीय बनाउने निर्देशन नैं दिइयो, सुझाव मात्र होइन । यसबाट सुन माथि सुगन्धको उखान चरितार्थ भएकोछ ।

प्रतिपादित सिद्धान्त अनुकरणिय
समझदारीपत्रमा अस्पष्टता बिद्यमान थियो । अब उक्त आयोजनाको निर्माणाधीन जलाशयमा संचित पानीको सदुपयोग नेपालको हितमा गरिने सुनिश्चित भएकोले सुदूर तथा मध्य पश्चिमांचल विकास क्षेत्रहरु अत्यधिकरुपमा लाभान्वित हुने भएकोछ र सम्पूर्ण नेपाली कृतार्थ छन् । साथै जलाशययुक्त आयोजनालाई बहुउद्देश्यीय बनाउनुपर्ने अवधारणा कोशेढुंगा बनेकोछ । संसदीय समितिद्वारा प्रतिपादित यो सिद्धान्त सबै जलाशययुक्त आयोजनाहरुमा सरकारले लागू गर्नुपर्दछ । स्मरणिय छ कि संबिधान सभामा बिद्यमान अधिकांश राजनैतिक दलहरुको प्रतिनिधित्व रहेको उक्त समितिले सर्वसम्मतिले यस्तो निर्णय गरेको हो । त्यसैले नेपाली जनता आशा मात्र होइन, विश्वास पनि गर्छन् कि उक्त समितिले अन्य जलाशययुक्त आयोजनाहरु पनि बहुउद्देश्यीय बनाउन सरकारलाई सचेत पार्नेछ ।

२०७ मेगावाटको नौमुरे, ६०० मेगावाटको बुढी गण्डकी, ४०० मेगावाटको नलसिंगाढ जस्ता आयोजनाहरुलाई पनि अब बहुउद्देश्यीय बनाएर संसदीय समितिद्वारा प्रतिपादित सिद्धान्त अवलम्बन गर्न वान्छनिय हुन्छ । एमाओबादीका अध्यक्षले प्रधानमन्त्रीको रुपमा भारत भ्रमणको क्रममा नौमुरे जलबिद्युत आयोजना भारतको सहयोगमा कार्यान्वयन गर्ने घोषणा गर्दा आलोचना तथा बिरोध भयो, बिद्युत उत्पादनको लागि मात्र कार्यान्वयन गर्ने भनाई सार्वजनिक हुंदा । किनभने यो आयोजना निर्माणको क्रममा बन्ने जलाशयमा संचित पानीले दाङ्ग, कपिलबस्तु लगायतका जिल्लाका झण्डै १ लाख हेक्टर खेतीयोग्य भूमिमा सुख्खायाममा (वर्षातमा पानी पर्दा धनजनको क्षति हुने गरेर बाढी पहिरो निम्त्याउने पानी भन्दा महत्वपूर्ण ढंगले फरक पानीले) सिंचाई गर्न सकिन्छ र सालमा तीन बाली भन्दा बढी खेती गरेर त्यस भेगका किसान सम्पन्न तथा समृद्ध हुनसक्छन्, रोजगारीको लागि बिदेश पलायन हुने बाध्यताबाट मुक्त हुन्छन् ।

जलाशययुक्त आयोजना निर्माण गर्दा खेतीयोग्य जमिन, वन–जंगल, बिद्यमान पूर्वाधार समेत डुबानमा पर्छ र स्थानिय बासिन्दा बिस्थापित हुन्छन् । जलाशययुक्त आयोजनाको सन्दर्भमा आयोजना कार्यान्वयन गर्न लाग्ने लागत मात्रलाई दृष्टितग नगरेर डुबान तथा बिस्थापनलाई पनि गैर–नगद लगानि मान्ने विश्वब्यापी प्रचलन छ । यस्तो लगानिको लागि समेत प्रतिफलको व्यवस्था गरिन्छ । यस सन्दर्भमा क्यानाडा र संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिकाको बीच सम्पन्न कोलम्बिया सन्धी तथा लेसोथो र दक्षिण अफ्रिका बीच सम्पन्न सन्धी मानकका रुपमा स्थापित छन् ।

अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय कानून
नदी बग्ने तल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रको अधिकार सुनिश्चित गर्न माथिल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रका केहि दायित्वहरु अन्तराष्ट्रिय कानूनमा तोकिएकाछन्, जसमध्ये तल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रमा बग्ने पानीको परिमाण घटाउन नपाउने व्यवस्था महत्वपूर्ण मानिन्छ । भारत तथा पाकिस्तान बीच सम्पन्न सिन्धु नदी सम्बन्धी सन्धीमा यो कुरालाई विशेषरुपमा आत्मसात गरिएकोछ ।

माथिल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रले सिंचाइ जस्ता पानी खपत हुने उपयोग (बिजुली उत्पादन गर्दा पानी खपत हुंदैन) गरेर तल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रमा बग्ने पानीको परिमाण घटाउन पाइंदैन भन्ने व्यवस्था अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय कानूनमा छ । तसर्थ माथिल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रमा जलाशययुक्त आयोजना निर्माण सम्पन्न भएर सुख्खायाममा तल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रमा थप÷नियन्त्रित पानी उपलब्ध भएर उपयोग गर्न थालेपछि माथिल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रमा पानी खपत हुने कृयाकलापमा प्रतिबन्ध लाग्छ ।

त्यसैले नौमुरे जस्तो जलाशययुक्त आयोजना निर्माण गर्दागर्दै समानान्तर रुपमा यो आयोजनाको दाङ्ग, कपिलबस्तु लगायत नेपाल भित्रका तल्लो तटीय क्षेत्रमा नहरको संजाल तैयार गरिनुपर्छ जसले गर्दा आयोजना सम्पन्न भएर सुख्खायाममा उपलब्ध हुने थप÷नियन्त्रित पानी तत्काल नेपाल भित्रै उपयोग होस् र ढिलो गर्नाले अन्तराष्ट्रिय कानूनको प्रतिबन्ध खेप्न नपरोस् । साथै जलाशयबाट सुख्खायाममा निसृत हुने सबै थप÷नियन्त्रित पानी नेपालमा उपयोग हुने अवस्था नभएमा लेसोथोले दक्षिण अफ्रिकाबाट रकम प्राप्त गरेको नजीरलाई आधार मानेर रकम प्राप्त गर्ने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्छ ।

नेपाली घरमा बासमती चामलको भात पकाउंदा भारतमा बास्ना पुगेको अर्थ लगाएर रकम तिर्न नमानेमा (केहि नेपालीहरु यसरी रकम लिन हुन्न समेत भन्छन् र भारतले पनि सजिलै तिर्न राजी हुने सम्भावना कम छ) नौमुरे जस्तो जलाशययुक्त आयोजनालाई नेपाल भित्रको तल्लो तटीय क्षेत्रमा बिद्यमान खेतियोग्य भूमिको आधारमा कार्यान्वयन गरिनुपर्ने हुन्छ । अर्थात नौमुरेबाट सुख्खायाममा उपलब्ध हुने थप÷नियन्त्रित पानी सम्पूर्णरुपमा नेपालमा उपयोग हुने अवस्था छैन, भने त्यस भेगको आवश्यकता अनुरुप मात्र थप÷नियन्त्रित पानी निसृत हुने गरेर आयोजनाको बांधको उचाई तथा आयोजनाको जडित क्षमता घटाउनु सकिन्छ, जसले गर्दा डुबान क्षेत्र तथा बिस्थापित हुने बासिन्दाको संख्या पनि घट्नेछ ।

नेपालमा जलाशययुक्त आयोजना निर्माण भएर सुख्खायाममा उपलब्ध हुने पानी भारतलाई सित्तैमा दिनुपर्छ भन्ने बुद्धिजीविको नेपालमा अभाव नभएपनि तल्लो तटीय लाभ बापत माथिल्लो तटीय राष्ट्रलाई परिपूर्ति गर्नुपर्छ भन्ने मान्यता भारतमा बिद्यमान छ । यस सम्बन्धमा अध्ययन गरेर सुझाव दिनको लागि भारतीय पूर्व केन्द्रिय उर्जा मन्त्री सुरेश प्रभाकर प्रभुको संयोजकत्वमा एउटा आयोग (जसलाई प्रभु आयोग पनि कहलिन्छ) गठन भएको थियो र उक्त आयोगले सकारात्मक प्रतिबेदन केन्द्रिय सरकारलाई बुझाईसकेको छ ।

बाढी नियन्त्रण
नेपालमा जलाशययुक्त आयोजना निर्माण गंिरंदा भारत लगायतका तल्लो तटीय क्षेत्रमा बाढी पनि नियन्त्रण हुन्छ । पंचेश्वर, कोशी उच्च बांध जस्ता बृहत् आयोजनाहंरु निर्माण गर्दा भारतलाई यस सम्बन्धमा हुने लाभ आकलन गरेर नेपालको भूभाग डुबान तथा स्थानिय बासिन्दा बिस्थापन बापत, उदाहरणार्थ क्यानाडाले संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिकाबाट रकम प्राप्त गरेको नजीर अनुरुप, रकम प्राप्त गर्नु पर्छ । तर नौमुरे जस्तो मध्यम क्षमताको आयोजना हकमा यस सम्बन्धमा भारतसंग खिचोला गरिरहन आवश्यक छैन । नेपाली भूमिको सिंचाईको आवश्यकता अनुसार निर्धाति क्षमताको आयोजनाबाट भारतमा हुने बाढी नियन्त्रणलाई भाईचाराको सौहार्दताको रुपमा लिन सकिन्छ । भारतीय सहयोगमा बिद्यालयहरुमा छाना हालिएका, बिद्यालयहरु नैं निर्माण गरिएका, पुस्तकालयहरुलाई पुस्तक उपलब्ध गराईदिएको आदिको पारस्परिकता आधारमा नेपालले त्याग गर्न सकिनेछ ।

कोशी उच्च बाँध
बिद्यमान कोशी आयोजनाको उद्देश्य बाढी नियन्त्रण, सिंचाई तथा बिद्युत उत्पादन हो । तर बाढी नियन्त्रण तथा सिंचाईबाट नेपाल लाभान्वित भएकोछैन । नभएकोमा आश्चर्यचकित हुन पनि आवश्यक छैन, किनभने यो आयोजनाको बांध हनुमाननगरबाट ३ माइल उत्तरमा निर्मित छ र नेपालमा यो आयोजनाको तल्लो तटीय क्षेत्र एकदम कम पर्छ भने भारतमा अत्यधिक । वस्तुतः भारतमा बाढी नियन्त्रण तथा सिंचाइको लागि यो आयोजना कार्यान्वयन गरिएको हो । अर्कोतिर उक्त बाँधले नेपालको धेरै भूभाग डुबानमा पारेको छ र २० हजार भन्दा बढी परिवारहरु बिस्थापित भए भने हरेक वर्षातमा यहांका बासिन्दा थप धनजन क्षतिको जोखिममा पर्छन् । यसरी सिंचाई तथा बाढी नियन्त्रणबाट नेपाल लाभान्वित नहुने र डुबान तथा बिस्थापन भने नेपालले ब्यहोर्ने गरेर अब आइन्दा नेपालले आयोजना निर्माण गर्न सहमत हुने अवस्था एकदम न्यून छ, विशेष गरे प्राकृतिक श्रोत साधन सम्बन्धी संसदीय समिति यस सम्बन्धमा सचेत एवं तदारुक रहेको परिप्रेक्ष्यमा ।

बिद्यमान कोशी बांधको आयु सकिएकोले कोशी उच्च बांध बनाउन भारत इच्छुक मात्र छैन ब्यग्र नैं छ । तर यो आयोजनामा पनि संसदीय समितिले पश्चिम सेतीको सन्दर्भमा प्रतिपादित सिद्धान्त अवलम्बन हुनुपर्छ । ३ हजार मेगावाट क्षमताको यो आयोजना निर्माण गर्दा पूर्वमा पांचथरको मौवा, पश्चिममा ओखलढुंगाको हिलेपानी, उत्तरमा संखुवासभाको आंखिभौ लगायतमा १ सय ९६ वर्ग किलोमिटर क्षेत्रका खेतीयोग्य भूमि, वन–जंगल, टुम्लिंगटार बिमानस्थल लगायतका पूर्वाधार संरचना डुबानमा पर्छ र १ लाख भन्दा बढी बासिन्दा बिस्थापनमा पर्छन ।

एक तप्का बुद्धिजीवि डुबान तथा बिस्थापनको दुष्प्रभावलाई दृष्टिगत गरेर यो आयोजनाको निर्माणै गर्न हुन्न भन्छन्, जुन बिकास बिरोधि धारणा हो । केहि बिनास भएर धेरै लाभान्वित हुन्छ भने केहि बिनासलाई आत्मसात गरिनुपर्छ, अन्यथा मध्ययुगिन अवस्थाबाट मुक्ति पाइंदैन ।

कोशी उच्चबांध निर्माणार्थ ३ सय अर्ब रुपैया लाग्ने आकलन छ र २ सय अर्ब रुपैया ऋण लिन सकिन्छ भने बिजुलीमा नेपाल र भारतको आधा–आधा हक लाग्ने गरेर निर्माण गर्ने हो भने नेपालले ५० अर्ब रुपैया पूंजी लगानि गर्नुपर्छ । यो आयोजनाबाट भारतमा १० लाख हेक्टर भूमि सिंचित हुने हुनाले लेसोथो र दक्षिण अफ्रिका बीच बिद्यमान नजीर अवलम्बन गरेर भारतले सुख्खायाममा थप÷नियन्त्रित पानी पाएबापत वार्षिक १७ अर्ब रुपैया नेपाललाई दिनुपर्छ, उत्पादित बिजुलीमा लाग्ने रोयल्टीको हिसाब छुट्टै हुन्छ । यसमा भारत सहमत भए ३ वर्षको पानी बापतको पैसाले नेपालले आफ्नो हिस्साको पूंजी लगानि जोगाड हुन्छ भने आयोजना सम्पन्न भएको चौथो वर्षदेखि प्राप्त हुने वार्षिक १७ अर्ब रुपैयाले पूर्वाचल विकास क्षेत्रको कायाकल्प गर्न सकिन्छ ।

यो अवधारणामा भारतको असहमति भएमा यो आयोजनास्थलको नेपाल भित्रको तल्लो तटीय क्षेत्रमा सुख्खायाममा सिंचाईको आवश्यकतालाई दृष्टिगत गरेर जलबिद्युत उत्पादन क्षमता निर्धारण गर्न सकिन्छ र सर्सर्ती हेर्दा यो आयोजनास्थलको तल्लो तटीय क्षेत्रमा नेपाल भित्र खेतीयोग्य भूमि अन्दाजि ३ लाख हेक्टर देखिनाले ६ सय मेगावाट क्षमताको जलाशययुक्त आयोजना निर्माण गरिए उपयुक्त हुन्छ ।

आलोचनात्मक टिप्पणी
कोशी, गण्डकी, महाकाली सन्धीहरुमा सुधार हुन सकेन तर पश्चिम सेतीमा सरकारले केहि सुधा¥यो भने संसदीय समितिले उत्कृष्टता दियो । आलोचनात्मक टिप्पणीलाई संचार माध्यमले स्थान दिएको हुनाले नैं यो सम्भव भएको हो । तसर्थ संचार माध्यम पनि बधाईका पात्र छन् । आलोचना प्रति नेपाल सरकारको सकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण, संसदीय समितिले नेपालको हितमा आयोजना निर्माणार्थ सरकारलाई दिशानिर्देश गर्न सफल भएको र संचार माध्यमले यस सम्बन्धमा सार्थक भूमिका खेल्न सकेकोमा सराहना मात्र नगरेर पश्चिम सेतीकोे सन्दर्भमा प्रतिपादित सिद्धान्त अन्य जलाशययुक्त आयोजनामा पनि अवलम्बन गरिने सुनिश्चित गर्न आवश्यक छ ।

२०६९ बैशाख २२ गतेको गोरखापत्रमा प्रकाशित
  1. Ratna Sansar Shrestha